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- DR Antonio Rosino
- General urology
- Oncology – Urological cancers
- Prostatic diseases
Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections or UTI happen when bacteria colonize the urine and incidentally cause discomfort. Depending on where they settle, various symptoms may appear. In some cases these infections may be repetitive, becoming a real problem for those who suffer from them because they restrict their daily lives.
What is a urinary tract infection?
It is a combination of symptoms caused by the colonization of the urine by germs. When this colonization is asymptomatic, that is, it does not cause discomfort, and is detected exclusively by urinalysis, it is called asymptomatic bacteriuria, and is different to true urinary tract infections.Should asymptomatic bacteriuria be treated?
Generally not. It should only be treated with antibiotics in special cases like pregnancy or situations in which the immune system is impaired. Systematically treating all of the bacteriurias may eventually cause antibiotic resistance and a selection of the more aggressive germs.What is cystitis?
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. The most common cause for acute cystitis is an infection of the urine in the bladder. It may cause burning when urinating, the feeling of having to empty the bladder continuously, discomfort in the lower abdomen and even the presence blood in the urine. Antibiotic treatment is usually very effective.What is considered a recurrent urinary infection?
We consider a recurrent UTI those cases that present multiple urinary infections for a year. This condition occurs more often in women.How are recurrent infections treated?
It is essential before starting any treatment to perform different tests to assess the possible causes of this condition. Treatment is individualized and depends on the findings of the diagnostic tests. In most cases, it is necessary to combine an increase in the quantity of water drunk, the correction of any secondary changes caused by menopause, changes in lifestyle and traditional medical treatment if we want to achieve a higher rate of success in controlling these infections.What is an acute prostatitis?
It is an inflammation of the prostate usually secondary to an infection. It may cause intense pain when urinating, difficulty and slowing of the urine flow, high fever and general discomfort. If not properly controlled, this infection may progress to orchiepididymitis, an infection of the epididymis and testis. Usually, they respond adequately to antibiotic treatment. Afterwards, tests to detect whether there have been adverse effects and to find out the cause of the infection should be performed.What is orchiepididymitis?
It is an inflammation of the epididymis (the part that collects the sperm produced by the testes) and the testicle. It is often preceded by a urine infection that has not been properly treated. It causes fever, enlarged and intense tenderness of the testicle and pain and discomfort with urination. Usually it respond adequately to treatment with antibiotics and painkillers, although it must be long lasting as otherwise there might be a relapse. In advanced cases when pus is present, a drainage may be necessary in the operating room.
In all cases, is recommended to assess the cause of the inflammation as there might be a tumour as cause of the symptoms in some patients.What is a pyelonephritis?
It is an inflammation of the kidney usually secondary to an infection. In most cases, it causes fever, pain in the lower back and general discomfort. Usually it responds to antibiotic treatment, but it is mandatory to do some tests to rule out any kidney problems such as stones or malformations that may favour new infections or hinder the proper response to antibiotic treatment.